Municipal Water Treatment Chemicals Market size is forecast to reach US$35.6 billion by 2027, after growing at a CAGR of 6.4% during 2022-2027. Drinking water sources are prone to contamination so appropriate treatment to remove contaminants is required. So, drinking water needs to be purified and treated before it is supplied and made fit for drinking. Various chemicals are employed for this purpose such as chlorine, sodium hydroxide, aluminum sulfate, bleach, ozone, fluoride, and potassium permanganate, among others. Municipal water treatment involves chemical treatment processes such as disinfection (chlorination, chloramination, etc.), coagulation & flocculation where chemicals are deliberately added with the intention of providing safe drinking water. Increasing demand for clean and safe drinking water and implementation of strict government regulations are driving the municipal water treatment chemicals market during the forecast period.
The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted all spheres of life, leading to great economic repercussions that countries are still reeling from. All the industries including the chemical industry were highly impacted. The chemical industry had to face challenges of all sorts in 2020- global supply chain disruptions, logistic challenges, closures, volatile crude oil prices, trade war, etc. Major chemical consumers such as the automotive and construction sectors were highly impacted whereas there was growing demand from medical and pharmaceutical sectors primarily due to stockpiling, sanitation, and healthcare-focused activities. This also affects the market for municipal water treatment chemicals. Municipal workers are considered essential workers and they had to adhere to stringent social distancing norms. However, COVID safe protocols meant that municipalities could only retain critical staff on site leading to operational constraints.
Municipal Water Treatment Chemicals Market Segment Analysis – By Type
The corrosion and scale inhibitors segment held the largest share of about 18% in the municipal water treatment chemicals market in 2021. The most widely used metal in water supply distribution systems is iron which is susceptible to corrosion. If iron taps and pipes are corroded it may cause discoloration of water and low pH making the water unfit for drinking. The accumulation of scale in water distribution systems can reduce flow rates, often leading to lower operating efficiency. Corrosion inhibitors are employed to correct the corrosion influence of water treatment additives. The most common forms of fluoride for around 90% of the drinking water that is fluoridated are fluorosilicates as fluorosilicic acid or sodium fluorosilicate. Using fluorosilicates to fluoridate drinking water adds silica, a corrosion
inhibitor, to the water and increases the silicates available for stabilizing the pipe surface, which contributes to reduced corrosion. Hence, corrosion and scale inhibitors are used, as even in a very low dosage they are sufficient, to prevent scale and corrosion. Hence, the corrosion and scale inhibitors segment is set to dominate the market during the forecast period.
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Municipal Water Treatment Chemicals Market Segment Analysis – By Form
The liquid form held the largest share in the municipal water treatment chemicals market of about 61% in 2021. Drinking water comes from various sources, such as lakes, rivers, wells, etc. which can be contaminated with microbes. As the water travels through a large network of piping to get to a community that could also give rise to contamination. To prevent contamination, municipalities use a disinfectant, usually either chlorine, chlorine dioxide or chloramine. Chlorine gas, sold as a compressed amber-colored liquid, is the least expensive form of chlorine and is the preferred type for municipal water systems. Alternatively, bleach (sodium hypochlorite), a light-yellow liquid is also used. Chlorination is the process of adding chlorine to drinking water to kill parasites, bacteria, and viruses. Municipal water providers usually rely on measurements of chlorine residual (the amount of chlorine remaining in the water after it reaches its destination) as proof of safety. Chloramination is the process of adding chloramine to drinking water to disinfect it and kill germs. It is used as an alternative to chlorination. Chloramines are a group of chemical compounds that contain chlorine and ammonia. Usually, monochloramine is used for this. Several studies show that drinking water with small amounts of chloramine provides protection against waterborne diseases. Since most of these chemicals are stable in the liquid form, this form is set to dominate the market during the forecast period.
Municipal Water Treatment Chemicals Market Segment Analysis – By End-Use Industry
The residential segment held the largest share of 58% in the municipal water treatment chemicals market in 2021. Municipalities are responsible for supply residential areas with safe and clean drinking water. But ensuring safe and clean drinking water is not an easy task. Therefore, various methods including chemical treatment are employed. It is the responsibility of the municipality to make sure that the chemicals used in drinking water treatment are certified. According to the United States EPA, public drinking water systems consist of community and non-community systems. A community water system supplies water to the same population year-round. It serves at least 25 people at their primary residences or at least 15 residences that are primary residences (for example, municipalities, mobile home park, sub-divisions). According to groundwater statistics, over 286 million Americans get their tap water from a community water system. Thus, the residential segment accounts for the largest share in the municipal water treatment chemicals market.
Municipal Water Treatment Chemicals Market Segment Analysis – By Geography
North America held the largest share in the municipal water treatment chemicals market in 2021 up to 33%, owing to well-established facilities and regulations. According to the EPA, there are over 148,000 public water systems in the United States which supply water to residential and commercial areas. The public drinking water systems are regulated by EPA and provide drinking water to 90% of Americans. According to the CDC, drinking water supplies in the United States are among the safest in the world. However, public drinking water systems use various methods of water treatment such as coagulation, flocculation, disinfection, etc. to provide safe drinking water. Under the Safe Drinking Water Act, the EPA has set drinking water regulations for more than 90 toxic contaminants to protect people from serious diseases. A survey conducted by NSF International, a global public health and safety organization, found that while 71% of U.S. consumers drink tap water nearly 42% do not take steps to filter it drink it directly. Most of the nation’s distribution systems are quite old hence susceptible to corrosion, presence of lead, leaks, and breaks. Therefore, the EPA estimates local water systems will need to invest $384 billion in the coming decades to keep the water supply clean.
Municipal Water Treatment Chemicals Market – Drivers
Increasing Demand for Clean and Safe Drinking Water
The demand for safe and clean drinking water is consistently increasing, owing to satisfying the needs and supporting various domestic activities. With the increasing urbanization and economic development, the current water supply is unlikely to satisfy the ever-growing demand. It is estimated that about 3.4 million of the world’s population die every year due to deprived access to clean drinking water. Providing safe drinking water still remains a global challenge. Chemical treatment of municipal water is critical to protect the public from waterborne diseases. Public utilities, both local government and state-owned, operate water supply systems, and therefore, collectively account for the bulk of the global market, according to the World Bank. According to the United Nations, nearly one-third of the world’s population lack access to safely managed drinking water services. Over half, do not have access to safely managed sanitation facilities. In the least-developed countries, about 22% of healthcare facilities lack access to improved water and improved sanitation services. In accordance with Sustainable Development Goal 6 (ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all by 2030) governments are striving to ensure clean and safe drinking water for all. Hence, this acts as a driver for the municipal water treatment chemicals market.
Implementation of Stringent Government Regulations
To ensure that municipal water supply meets the required standards of water quality, cleanliness, and microbial control it is essential that the right drinking water conditions are established and maintained consistently. Without the correct treatment, drinking water systems can suffer from scale formation, corrosion, and can become a breeding ground for disease-causing microbes including Legionella bacteria, E. coli, Hepatitis A, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium, and other pathogens. In the United States, all the treatment chemicals used must meet particular quality standards and be tested in accordance with the ANSI/NSF Standard 60 and must be considered food-grade it be NSF approved (National Sanitation Foundation International). Even more stringent standards apply in Europe where the chemicals used must be in accordance with the European Drinking Water Directive. China adopted its own drinking water standard GB3838-2002 (Type II). For countries that do not have a legislative framework, the WHO publishes guidelines on the drinking water quality standards that should be met. Thus, it is anticipated that there will be an upsurge for the chemical treatment of municipal water, which will subsequently drive the market growth during the forecast period.
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Municipal Water Treatment Chemicals Market – Challenges
Home Water Treatments are on the rise
Even though municipalities strive to provide clean and safe water, many households use a home water treatment method to ensure the safest water for consumption. The most common household systems consist of Reverse Osmosis (RO), Distillation systems, Purifiers etc. For instance, the density of population in urban India is quite high and so is the scarcity of safe drinking water. Therefore, the majority of the population consumes water from privately owned water sources. RO is one of the most effective water treatment processes widely used for water purification by the majority of the population in this region. It is generally used for home water treatment to remove salts, chemical toxins, organic contaminants, dyes, pesticides, and microbes. Niti Aayog’s Composite Water Management Index (CWMI) has confirmed that 70% of India’s water supply is contaminated. Therefore, the urban population prefers other water home treatments. Such treatments have made municipal water obsolete as they can even purify groundwater water making it fit for consumption. Thus, they pose a challenge to the municipal water treatment chemicals market.
Municipal Water Treatment Chemicals Market Landscape
Technology launches, acquisitions, and R&D activities are key strategies adopted by players in the Municipal Water Treatment Chemicals Market. The key players in the Municipal Water Treatment Chemicals Market are
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A. Water Treatment Additives Market
B. Industrial Waste Water Treatment Chemicals (IWTC) Market
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