Data from the United Nations suggests that only 3% of total water on the Earth’s surface is freshwater with a miniscule 1% of this found in rivers, swamps, and lakes making water conservation an existential issue. Governmental bodies and environmental agencies have stepped in through various regulations to reduce water pollution easing the burden on depleting sources of freshwater. The wastewater treatment industry includes several solutions such as zero liquid discharge (ZLD), effluent treatment plants (ETP), wastewater treatment plants (WTP), and sewage treatment plants (STP). ZLD is particularly popular as it comprises ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, fractional electrode ionization, and crystallization resulting in zero discharge of water at the end of treatment.
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Need to Comply With Norms Forces Petrochemical Industry to Install ZLD Units
The catastrophic growth of industrial pollution has forced regulatory authorities to set strict guidelines for wastewater discharge and treatment making it imperative for companies to adhere to these norms by installing operating plants. This has played a major role in growth in the zero liquid discharge market, especially in the last decade. In terms of consumption, the energy & power industry held the highest share of the zero liquid discharge market during the forecast period due to widespread adoption of the technology. The energy and power industry and petrochemical industries account for more than half of the zero liquid discharge market in 2019 and this is unlikely to change anytime soon.
Rapidly Industrializing and Urbanizing Population Spells Winning Combo for ZLD Market
The APAC region demonstrated the greatest requirement for zero liquid discharge plants in 2019 due to the paucity of freshwater in this highly populous continent. China is already the world’s largest manufacturing nation and India is also investing heavily in its energy & power industry providing ample opportunities for key stakeholders in the APAC zero liquid discharge market. On the other hand, Europe and North America are mature markets with moderate rates of growth as they already have robust frameworks to curb water pollution in place. The US Clean Water Act forbids any entity from discharging pollutants without a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. The NPDES permit regulates pollutant point sources and requires organizations to install ZLD units.
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High Initial and Recovery Costs Make ZLD Operation Challenging for Smaller Companies
A significant portion of zero liquid discharge utilizes thermal processing that is highly energy intensive. Custom-designed zero liquid discharge plants are prohibitively expensive in terms of both capex and operating cost. This is a major challenge that needs to be overcome to spur greater adoption by smaller companies. In addition, the recovery cost of ZLD plants is very high only making it feasible for larger companies in the zero liquid discharge market.
Praj Industries Expanding Manufacturing Capacity and Booming in India ZLD Market
Companies profiled in this in-depth report on the zero liquid discharge market include eolia, ALFA LAVAL, GEA Group Aktiengesellschaft, SUEZ, Thermax Limited, Praj Industries, Aquatech International LLC, and Oasys Water.
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